Cropping systems require basic nutrients and the sludge / large fibers recovered through manure processing can be pelletized and turned into an optimized fertilizer for the cropping system and organic matter for the soil. By compressing the pellets and reducing their volume, the pellets become better suited to transport over long distances, so that recycling becomes extremely cost effective.
The compact pellets require less storage space during the off season, can be applied by various kinds of machinery which crop farms already possess, are strong enough to be applied by machine without disintegrating, and are amenable to GPS based, Precision Ag variable rate technologies (VRTs). A further benefit is that the pellets can be spread near residential areas, because they do not generate dust. However, the pellets generally are hydrophobic and can be transported intact via runoff, with the potential to degrade the quality of receiving water bodies.